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Posts Tagged ‘Internet

Skype outage affects users
Servers down, according to Skype reports, affecting users around the world

Published 27th May, 2011 by Penny Jones

Popular online communications tool Skype suffered another crash yesterday which not only affected services but its own website, its second outage in about six months.

Skype posted alerts updating users on its Twitter account.

It said: “Earlier today, a corruption occurred in a small percentage of users’ systems that resulted in some of our community not being able to sign in to Skype. We issued some instructions which would allow you to get back online, but understand that they’re fairly technical, and have been working hard to produce a version of Skype for Windows which fixes this problem automatically.”

Skype was purchased by Microsoft earlier this month for US$8.5bn. Microsoft said it plans to increase access across both company’s product lines to real-time video and voice communications through the purchase.

The problems first occurred about midday GMT on 26 May, and Skype later said it mostly affected accessing Skype through Windows. It said an update would be issued to users tomorrow.

According to reports on the Skype website, the outage was caused by a server outage, or a “short break”.

December’s outage was blamed on overloaded servers that were then hit by a bug.

Skype said at the time this had affected its supernodes, which had to be taken offline – these are the computers that connect millions of user computers and phones around the world that use Skype.

During the December outage Skype said: “Under normal circumstances, there are a large number of supernodes available. Unfortunately, today, many of them were taken offline by a problem affecting some versions of Skype. As Skype relies on being able to maintain contact with supernodes, it may appear offline for some of you.

What are we doing to help? Our engineers are creating new ‘mega-supernodes’ as fast as they can, which should gradually return things to normal. This may take a few hours, and we sincerely apologise for the disruption to your conversations. Some features, like group video calling, may take longer to return to normal.”

(Sources: DatacentreDynamics, and MemeGenerator)

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Saw this article which struck me as amusing at first, then provoked a couple of thoughts.

Firstly, as one of the world’s most censored country, China organising a large-scale online activity made me look twice at the headlines. The basic principle of the Internet is a sphere whereby information is freely exchanged. This article made me wonder if China, as one of the rising global powers, has enough clout and determination to re-make the Internet, Chinese stye.

Secondly, it gives rise to another question: Is China loosening up its strict policies and taking a more ‘Westernised’ approach towards the Internet (and dare I mention, freedom of speech)?

While the Internet is a bane and boon for netizens and people/organisations/governments with reason for hiding certain information respectively, it cannot be denied that the strength of the World Wide Web lies in its ability to disseminate data.

As noted in the article, the various Chinese websites participating in the online activities are pro-Communist Party. Hence, so far it appears that the degree China is willing to go only extends to news organisations which are sure to support its views.

However, as some optimists are wrought to believe, China is finally opening up.

What do people think? (:

(Source: People’s Daily Online)

This post will draw upon lecture content as well as readings from Week 4. The question to be discussed is as follows: Russell (et al.) compares elite media and institutions with bloggers and ponders the following question: “Do bloggers, with their editorial independence, collaborative structure and merit-based popularity more effectively inform the public?” (Reader, page 136). Do you agree? Use examples to illustrate your point of view.

While it’s true that mainstream media is not the only source of information, I still hold that mainstream media still more effectively informs.

In recent years with easy-to-use blogging tools like WordPress, Blogger, LiveJournal, and even Tumblr, mainstream media institutions have lost audience, mostly the generation who grew up with technology.

Russell, Ito, Richmond, and Tuters wrote that this occurrence is an unavoidable side-effect of the need for freedom of speech. In a society whereby only mainstream media producers get their views published, the average citizen is sick of this constraint and turns to blogging.

As discussed here and here, anyone with Internet and basic computer and writing skills can set up a blog.

Beside these obvious benefits, the blogger acquires “editorial independence”, through “collaborative structure” and “merit-based popularity”, which serve to inform and educate with information that may be an exposé of mainstream media news or a new news angle (Russell et al., 2008, p. 67).

Bloggers generally don’t have to answer to any higher management. An example is A Disgruntled Republican. He criticises the US government openly and is a prime example of how freedom of speech have led to a shared sense of community and merit-based popularity which is evident by this blog’s position on a list of best political blogs.

Another political blog is The Temasek Review. It’s an example which informs publics more effectively than state-run media simply it has editorial independence to publish news that wouldn’t be published in mainstream media i.e. news about Opposition parties, criticisms of the government, analysis of policies, etc. Despite attempts to shut this website down, it’s still continuing due to public donations, and ongoing support from netizens who want “an alternative to SPH” which is pro-government (Tan, 2011).

While such websites are relatively credible, there’re also blogs with inaccurate and untrustworthy information. However, some experts still believe that blogging is best. Andrew Nachison, Director of the Media Center, a US-based think-tank believes “blogs have become independent sources for images and ideas that circumvent traditional sources of news and information” (Belo, 2004).

The correct phrase to use in describing this phenomenon is “transition” (Belo, 2004). While it’s true that mainstream media has lost some potency, impartial reporting, the hallmark of traditional media is still not strong in blogs due to editorial independence. This leads to serious consequences like spreading incorrect information which is made more severe by the Internet’s dissemination speed.

Tthe advent of mainstream media blogs threaten independent blogs. For one, mainstream media blogs are perceived to be more credible. Secondly, teams of newsmakers behind the production of mainstream media blogs (and also in top independent blogs) show that manpower is necessary for the formation of good news (Owyang, 2008). Also, mainstream media blogs are still foremost in producing “deep, multi-source digs into a particular topic” (Sullivan, 2008). Sullivan cites these blogs for their insight:

1. Google and China

2. Google and USA

Thirdly, the lines between mainstream media and netizens blur, “mainstream media rejoins the people”, resulting in a completely different medium (Associated Press, 2006; Owyang, 2008).

As a Pew Research Centre paper found, blogs and mainstream media “embrace different agendas’ (Pew Research Centre, 2010). Blogs were also found to rely heavily on mainstream media information. 90% of blogs use mainstream media sources; 80% of blogs linked stories coming exclusively from major media outlets like BBC, CNN, New York Times, Washington Post (Pew Research Centre, 2010).

Hence the future lies in mainstream media blogs which combine credibility, budget, and freedom. I hold that mainstream media still more effectively inform the masses.

References

A Disgruntled Republican. 2011, viewed 24 April 2011.

Associated Press. 2006, Bloggers Join Mainstream’, Wired, viewed 24 April 2011.

Auletta, K. 2008, ‘The Search Party: Google squares off with its Capitol Hill critics’, New Yorker, viewed 24 April 2011.

Belo, R. 2004, ‘Blogs take on the mainstream’, BBC News, viewed 24 April 2011.

Blog Catalogue. 2010, ‘Politics by Award Winning Independent Political Bloggers in their Blogs’, BlogCatalogue, viewed 24 April 2011.

Owyang, J. 2008, ‘How Popular Blogs and Mainstream Media Appear The Same’, Web Strategist, viewed 24 April 2011.

Pew Research Centre. 2010, ‘New Media, Old Media: How Blogs and Social Media Agendas Relate and Differ from Traditional Press’, Pew Research Centre Publications, viewed 24 April 2011.

Russell, A. Ito, M., Richmond, T., & Tuters, M. 2008, ‘Culture: Media Convergence and Networked Culture’, Networked Publics, ed. K. Varnelis, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 43 – 76.

Sullivan, D. 2008, ‘Blogs & Mainstream Media: We Can & Do Get Along’, Daggle, viewed 24 April 2011.

Tan, A. 2011, Ex-Singaporean sponsored an additional server for The Temasek Review’, The Temasek Review, viewed 24 April 2011.

The Temasek Review. 2011, viewed 24 April 2011.

Thompson, C. 2006, ‘Google’s China Problem (and China’s Google Problem)’, The New York Times, viewed 24 April 2011.

In the lecture this week (Week 5), the topic of online privacy came up. According to the lecture as well as the readings, information is even more easily available to anyone with a computer and an Internet connection than ever (Solove, 2007). The benefits are obvious. As Solove says in his book, “We can communicate and share ideas in unprecedented ways. These developments are revolutionizing our self-expression and freedom” (Solove, 2007). With the Internet, people can quickly search for information regarding for example, a certain company (whether it is credible), a certain person offering a product or service (how do other purchasers rate the product/service), or even look up long-lost friends or family members via various avenues like blogs. One of the most commonly utilised approach is online social networking sites like Facebook.

Consider the example of China which had 457 million Internet users at the end of 2010, compared to only 308 million in USA (Bryan, 2011). This number according to a 2009 report by the China Internet Network Information Centre (CNNIC) is only 29% of the total Chinese population, which means that numbers of Internet users will be expected to steadily rise at an exponential rate (CNNIC, 2009). According to Shankar, the Internet in China has helped 46 million people with their education, 35 million with security purposes, 15 million with job hunting and 14 million with travel plans (Shankar, 2010). The Internet has also resulted in the birth of informant websites set up by the governement for citizens to report corruption (Shankar, 2010).

This has also facilitated the rise of citizen watchdogs, or ‘flesh searches’. Netizens on popular BBS forums (Bulletin Board Systems) and social networking websites have all conducted searches for people (and their personal details) who have become popular on the Internet for whatever reasons. Examples range from corrupt/badly behaving government officials who are not punished for their misdeeds, mysterious people acting strangely in public, controversial blog posts, and so on. Upon finding the person’s personal details which include full name, address, and contact numbers, depending on the person’s behaviour, netizens in the area would proceed to either praise or harass the person in the spotlight. While this practice has had good results (e.g. the government pressured into taking appropriate actions against its offending staff member), netizens who reveal the wrong information i.e. personal details of an innocent person can cause much trouble for the person targeted.

However, as illustrated in the examples above, there are downfalls to this ease of information gathering. For one, a great amount of digital paper trail is generated. Personal information, generated information, and even false information will be preserved forever on the Internet, and is easily accessed at the click of a mouse.

This brings us to the relatively new phenomenon of employers Googling prospective job applicants. The practice of making use of the Internet to screen potential employees ensure the company that the person they are considering is suitable for the job and the corporate image portrayed by the firm. Conversely, many job hunters also make use of the Internet to find out more about a firm with 60% using social media to find out the company culture. As the two articles attached show, the vast amount of information out there can be a double-edged sword.

Employees using Social Media from TODAYOnline:

SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE ROLE IT PLAYS WHEN LOOKING FOR A JOB

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SINGAPORE – A survey by recruitment firm, Randstad, has found that social media plays an influential role in the workplace and job search environment.

According to the Randstad Workmonitor, when preparing for an interview, 56 per cent of employees would use social media to find out more about an employer.

Some 60 per cent would use social media to find out more about a potential employer’s working culture from comments made by employees, and more than half (60 per cent) would not apply to an organisation if negative things were being said about the employer on social media.

When asked if employees take into account that their personal profiles can be viewed by their employers, 67 per cent said yes.

About half (48 per cent) said their employers provided guidelines for using social media representation with regard to work-related content and engagement.

Randstad regional director, Singapore and Malaysia, Ms Karin Clarke, said it is not surprising that employers are proactively providing their staff with social media guidelines, as social media is a double-edged sword for organisations.

While it provides an opportunity to attract quality candidates, sensitive and negative content can go viral very quickly and out of an organisation’s control, potentially causing serious harm to a company’s reputation.

The Randstad Global Workmonitor also revealed that Singapore was in the bottom three of Asia-Pacific countries surveyed when it came to employee satisfaction.

Employees in China and Japan are the least satisfied. The most satisfied employees in Asia Pacific are in India, (80 per cent), New Zealand (68 per cent) and Australia (67 per cent).

Employers using Social Media: 2011 article on the San Diego Union-Tribune

Schools are now also adopting this practice of checking up on hopeful candidates for acceptance. While the reason for rejecting some applicants is due to their Facebook accounts, schools are saying that the lack of knowledge about privacy settings, not so much the unbefitting behaviour and lives of these applicants is the real rationale for the students’ rejection. In the case of one American student, his Facebook profile was open to the public which led to discovery of a note he posted with threatening overtones. This mistake cost him his graduation, from which he was only a month away from.

Pam Procter a college admissions expert advises, “”Get rid of any photos, messages, pagers or ‘Likes’ that may reflect badly on you,”.

As quoted in the article, students hoping to enter disciplines such as business, law or medicine need to make sure that their online social profiles are presented in the best possible light. “According to Schools.com, 9 percent of business schools, 15 percent of law schools and 14 percent of medical schools admission officers reported looking at applicants’ social media profiles during the application process” (Lenz, 2011).

Examples of students being subjected to disciplinary action, or even expulsion have been as common as employees being fired over careless blog posts or online social media content. With cases like employees being fired because his or her employers saw disparaging comments about the company or management on personal blogs or Facebook accounts, to students being expelled for inappropriate behaviour, the danger of the Internet is that “in this day and age, there’s no privacy” (Solove, 2007).

What struck me about this lecture and all the cases outlined is that I am leaving a trail of information about myself, accessible to anyone, anytime and I can’t do anything about it without being equipped with more than the rudimentary computing skills I possess.

The idea of someone who can commit identity theft, the first case that comes to mind so easily makes me think twice about revealing information, however basic it might be online.

The second worrying thing is that my future schools or employers can pull up information about me in an instant, and the information that they pull up could be from anytime in my life. While searches would most likely turn up the most recent news about me i.e. when I’ve gotten my act together and started being responsible, data that I could have foolishly posted online when I was young and stupid would most likely also come up. The problem I face is being unable to remember every single thing I did on the Internet from a decade ago when I first started using this marvelous, but frightening invention.

Thirdly, the faint (in my case) possibility that someone would make use of my information or wrongly accuse me of some wrongdoing and disseminate my personal information all over the World Wide Web is a daunting thought. What’s been sent out can never be taken back, as some people have found out (mixing private correspondance with corporate ones and sending personal messages out to the whole department, or even the region, in the case of one Singapore Health Promotion Board staffer sending an explicit tweet to all and sundry following the governmental institution’s Twitter feed).

Critics of the Internet have said that it promotes excessive narcissism and frivolous discussions, while supporters argue that freedom of speech allows whoever to do whatever, and if endless self-promotion and adoration is what rocks your boat, so be it. I suppose the lure of posting information about yourself, every moment of your day, personal experiences, rants, and so on is very strong. Having people whom you know as well as don’t know seeing your ‘works’, empathising with you, and commenting on your posts seems to be very attractive, and in a way, increases your importance in the world. However, being a media student (and knowing very well of how fast information can be spread), attending net communications, and also being an all-round paranoid person, I am really more inclined to take the former side. Everything personal will be made private, no matter how barren my blog, Facebook, Twitter, and god knows what else is.

Hence, while the Internet is certainly a boon to everyone who can access it, it remains a bane as well.

References

Bryan, W. 2011, ‘Chinese Internet Use Surges Past 450 Million People In 2010’, National Public Radio, viewed 22 April 2011.

CCNIC. 2009, ‘Translation of The 23rd CNNIC Report – Statistical Survey Report on Internet Development in China’, CCNIC, viewed 22 April 2011.

Chinapet. 2011, ‘. . . . . Xidan girls event. . . . Recent hot hot’, viewed 22 April 2011.

Hopwood, R. 2011, ‘Using online connections to find jobs, workers’, The San Diego Union-Tribune: Technology and Telecom, viewed 22 April 2011.

Lenz, S. 2011, ‘Students applying to college may want to check out their Facebook page first’, Deseret News, viewed 22 April 2011.

Matyszczyk, C. 2011. ‘Facebook placenta pose gets student expelled’, CNET, viewed 22 April 2011.

Netease. 2011, ‘Topic: Men’s 11-year-old girl claiming to be obscene, “the senior officials to Beijing” (video)’, Netease, viewed 22 April 2011.

Sarrio, J. 2010, ‘Tennessee teen expelled for Facebook posting’, USA Today, viewed 22 April 2011.

Shankar, B. 2010, ‘Key facts about China’s internet usage’, International Business Times, viewed 22 April 2011.

Solove, DJ. 2007, ‘How the Free Flow of information Liberates and Constrains Us’, Future of Reputation: Gossips, Rumour, and Privacy on the Internet, New Haven: Yale University Press, New York, USA. pp. 17 – 49.

Tianya. 2011, ‘『End of the World Zatan 』is black on the the” Zhejiang University Women, “rave-known professor of Zhejiang University”‘, viewed 22 April 2011.

The Boston Channel. 2011, ‘Work Talk On Facebook Might Get You Fired: Employees Can Complain About Workplace, Within Limits’, The Boston Channel, viewed 22 April 2011.

TODAYOnline. 2011.

News

Posted on: March 25, 2011

Some interesting pieces of news which relates to the material covered by Net Communications so far. The second article about Google’s Internet library plans being thwarted strikes me as coincidental, seeing how I’ve just posted here on copyright issues.

INTERNET BROWSER BATTLE HEATS-UP

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NEW YORK – Mozilla released the latest version of its free and open source Web browser Firefox to the public on Tuesday.

The new browser was downloaded nearly 3 million times only hours after it was made available online – Microsoft’s Internet Explorer 9, in contrast, was downloaded 2.35 million times within its first 24 hours last week.

But Firefox 4’s time in the limelight was quickly cut short by Google’s announcement yesterday that they have introduced support for the HTML5 speech input API (application programming interface) in their Chrome browsers, effective immediately. In simple terms, that means you will be able to talk to your browser.

The API opens up a slew of possibilities. Web developers, for instance, will now be able to incorporate speech-to-text transcription in their apps, allowing users to upload speech, via a microphone, to a transcription server and having it show up as text within the app.

Google’s announcement overshadowed earlier news about Firefox 4’s improvements, including increased privacy features – one security upgrade, “Do Not Track”, will allow “users to set a browser preference that will broadcast their desire to opt-out of third party, advertising-based tracking”, Mozilla said.

The new Firefox also promotes interactive capabilities with HTML5.

(Agencies)

COPYRIGHT ISSUES TOPPLE GOOGLE’S DIGITAL LIBRARY, BOOKSTORE PLANS

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by The New York Times

NEW YORK – Google’s ambition to create the world’s largest digital library and bookstore has run into the reality of a 300-year-old legal concept: Copyright.

The company’s plan to digitise every book published and make them widely available was derailed on Tuesday, when a United States federal judge in New York rejected a sweeping US$125 million (S$158.1 million) legal settlement the company had worked out with groups representing authors and publishers.

The decision throws into legal limbo one of the most ambitious undertakings in Google’s history and it brings into sharp focus concerns about the company’s growing power over information.

While the profit potential of the book project is not clear, the effort is one of the pet projects of Mr Larry Page, the Google co-founder who is set to become its chief executive next month. And the project has wide support inside the company, whose corporate mission is to organise all of the world’s information.

But citing copyright, anti-trust and other concerns, Judge Denny Chin said that the settlement went too far. He said it would have granted Google a “de facto monopoly” and the right to profit from books without the permission of copyright owners.

Judge Chin acknowledged that “the creation of a universal digital library would benefit many” but said that the proposed agreement was “not fair, adequate and reasonable”. He left open the possibility that a substantially revised agreement could pass legal muster.

The Authors Guild and the Association of American Publishers sued Google in 2005 over its book-scanning project. After two years of painstaking negotiations, the authors, publishers and Google signed a sweeping settlement that turned three parties into allies instead of opponents and would have brought millions of printed works into the digital age.

It would have given authors and publishers new ways to earn money from digital copies of their works.

Among the most persistent objections to the deal, raised by the Justice Department and others, was that no other company would be able to build a comparable library, leaving Google free to charge high prices for its collection, and that the deal would cement the company’s grip on the Internet search market.

Source: TodayOnline

In the age of digital information, anyone ‘hooked up’ or in other words, connected to the Internet is immediately privy to data which could previously have been rather inaccessible to the average man on the streets. For instance, government documents and statistics which were once available only in hardcopy at the local government department are now put up online. Anyone, despite geographical location can access these files. Hence, technological advances have “revolutionised communications and the spread of information” (Lallana, 2003, p. 6).

Consequently, this led to the emergence of participatory culture. Russell, Ito, Richmond, and Tuters (2008) discuss this phenomenon. Old and new media convergence which spreads power and information across the society despite geographical distance combines with the ease at which low-cost “digital authoring tools” are procured to allow for prousers (producers/users) to publish and disseminate their works. Making use of media content readily available on the World Wide Web (WWW), netizens who are also prousers are now able to generate ‘original’ works based on past and current creations. However, the idea of original is sometimes subjective, and will be discussed later.

The top-down model of mass media-practitioners-to-consumers model has been changed due to the popularity of peer-to-peer (P2P) relationships. Instead of Hollywood blockbusters which are only released at a certain time or filmed based on areas of interest of a particular producer or company, prousers now can plan, film, and disseminate their amateur productions on websites like Youtube. These previously ‘fringe’ activities have been gaining momentum in the WWW and becoming forms of mainstream culture, adopted by mass media practitioners. Take the example of alternative band Weezer’s Grammy Award music video, Pork and Beans.



The 2008 music video featured various Youtube celebrities and references to Internet culture (e.g. Grobe and Voltz’s Diet Coke and Mentos viral artwork experiment) and was debuted first on Youtube. This goes to show that the ‘big’ (relatively) players are acknowledging the user-led mass media revolution. Viral marketing is the next big thing.

Netizens have also reinterpreted mass media products in parodies and spoofs, which are then disseminated online. Using clips and sound from the movie Pirates of the Caribbean, an amateur video remix garnered 10,323,514 views as of now. 



An example is the wildly popular Twilight series. Youtubers like nigahiga have put their own spin on the original, often garnering positive feedback from other netizens as well.



The network of public culture has also led to a great increase in online groups coming together to share culture. One example of this is how Asian dramas and pop culture are becoming more popular in the English-speaking world through transcriptions and production of subtitles. A simple search for a Japanese drama “Hana Yori Dango Eng Subs” for instance, will yield many results with fan-made subtitles. Similarly, many music videos in foreign languages are now ‘fan-subbed‘, leading to a wider trans-culture fan base.



Besides editing and adding on to a media product, prousers have also remixed media products, coming out with a new creations between artists not likely to collaborate. Youtube user isosine has recently come up with a mashup of teen pop idol Justin Bieber and heavy metal band Slipknot, proving that anything is possible. Online that is.



The big controversies of P2P and netizens taking a more active role in producing media like remixes are that the big media companies are taking offense that ‘original’ material is being ‘stolen’ and passed off as new (O’Brien & Brian, 2006, pp. 1-3). Under copyright laws, unless permission is sought or material is licensed under a voluntary open license, it is illegal to use or perform substantial parts of a certain work (Spackman, 2003).

However, as Brett Gaylor, the film-maker of RIP: A Remix Manifesto points out, culture always builds on the past (Riedemann, 2009). Gaylor has highlighted the influences that Walt Disney’s cartoon movies have used. Favourite Disney films like Snow White and the Seven Dwarves as well as The Little Mermaid were influenced by the likes of Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen, showing that culture indeed builds on the past (Allen, 1999 & Patten, 2000). Mentioned also in RIP: A Remix Manifesto, English rock band The Verve got sued for lifting ‘original’ material from The Rolling Stones who in turn were influenced by blues musicians of the 60s.

As co-founder of Downhill Battle, Nicholas Reville said, “All kinds of artists have always borrowed and built on each others’ work, these corporations have outlawed an art form” (Shachtman, 2004).

References

DaJugglingFool. 2007, ‘Why is the Rum Gone? – Remix’, Youtube.com, viewed 25 March 2011.

D-Addicts. 2011, ‘Hana Yori Dango [Eng Subs] (Complete)’, D-Addicts, viewed 25 March 2011.

Downhill Battle. 2011.

Gaylor, B. 2008, ‘RIP! A Remix Manifesto’, viewed 25 March 2011.

isosine. 2011, ‘Justin Bieber vs. Slipknot – Psychosocial Baby’, Youtube.com, viewed 25 March 2011.

Lallana, EC. 2003, ‘The Information Age’, e-ASEAN Task Force: UNDP-APDIP, viewed 25 March 2011.

nigahiga. 2009, ‘Movies In Minutes – Twilight’, Youtube.com, viewed 25 March 2011.

O’Brian, D. & Brian, F. 2006, ‘Mashups, remixes and copyright law’, Internet Law Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 2, Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Law School, pp. 17-19.

Patten, F. 2000, ‘Walt Disney and Europe: A Closer Look At Sources’, Animation World Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 11, viewed 25 March 2011.

PromoNews. 2011, ‘Mathew Cullen video for Weezer’s Pork & Beans wins Grammy’, PromoNews.com, viewed 25 March 2011.

Riedemann, DV. 2009, ‘Movie Review: RiP A Remix Manifesto’, Suite101, viewed 25 March 2011.

Russell, A. Ito, M., Richmond, T., & Tuters, M. 2008, ‘Culture: Media Convergence and Networked Culture’, Networked Publics, ed. K. Varnelis, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 43 – 76.

Shactman, N. 2004, ‘Copyright Enters a Gray Area’, Wired, viewed 25 March 2011.

Spackman, C. 2003, ‘Why Use a Free / Open License?’, Openhistory, viewed 25 March 2011.

TheYGmusic. 2010, ‘[MV] Big Bang – Beautiful Hangover [HD] [ENG SUB]’, Youtube.com, viewed 25 March 2011.

WeezerVEVO. 2009, ‘Weezer – Pork And Beans’, Youtube.com, viewed 25 March 2011.